In my reply, I explained that although I only go by a first name and surname now that I live in the United States, I too have multiple names, and used them fairly often when I lived in Colombia. But in reality, everyone has as many names as professional cyclists from Spanish-speaking countries. You included.
Why? The answer is simple, and perhaps far less interesting than why Brazilian footballers usually go by a single name. The small graphic below should explain most of it for you. Let's use Sky's Sergio Henao as an example. I'll use his full name, as it's sometimes used in races.
(I will use the term "last name" at times, since this is what a "surname" is usually called in the United States.)
Seems simple enough. As you can see, his second surname, Montoya, is simply his mother's original surname, her "maiden name", as it's often referred to in English. Thus, in Colombia, and other Latin American countries, your second last name is your "maternal last name". "Maternal last name", is a reminder of our link to Spain, since the concept of "maiden names" doesn't really exist there, since historically most women kept their name unchanged after marriage. In any case, the image above explains why you'll see riders with two surnames, not just one. It's because our naming convention allows us to have two surnames, one from our father, one from our mother. This also explains why perhaps the term "last name" is not ideal, since it's not really the last name at all. There can be others after it.
That explains the bulk of it. But there's a bit more going on here. So allow me to explain.
While your first surname is usually your father's, Spain now allows surname transposition due to gender equality laws. This means that the mother's first surname may come first. Notice my use of the phrase "first surname". This is because mothers also have two surnames of their own (one paternal, one maternal). This means that in official paperwork, those of us from Spanish-speaking countries actually have several more last names, which we inherit from our parents. Usually a total of four surnames. Let's use Sergio Henao's full name as an example once again. Since I don't know his third and fourth surnames, I will simply make some up for the sake of illustration.
I've simply used "Camacho" and "Gaviria" because they are common surnames in Colombia. In this example, "Camacho" would be Sergio's father's maternal surname (his father's second), while "Gaviria" would be his mother's maternal surname (her second).
If you're keeping up with all this, you've probably figured out by now that this string of surnames could keep going on and on forever, if you want it to. That's because your ancestors each had their own last names, and you can work your way back. In my family, we know of eight last names (maybe more, but I'm forgetting them now). Some families can do even more. But those lengthy runs of surnames are simply bits of information that families know about. They are not used on a daily basis. For official matters, two to four last names are what's needed. It should be noted that immigrants who move to most Spanish-speaking countries will have to assume a full name according to these conventions, if only for official/legal paperwork. So that upon taking up residency, their name will change to include at least their mother's maiden name.
Now that you know this, you've probably figured out that this means that Rigoberto Urán (whose full name is "Rigoberto Urán Urán") had two parents with the same surnames before marriege. Yes, that's exactly what happened, but no, his parents were not related. This ends up happening due to the relatively small amount of surnames in Colombia, when compared to a country like the United States, which has surnames from all over the world. This is something that my wife noticed when flipping through the pages of my yearbook from 8th grade. I lived in Miami, Florida, then. Almost 90% of my school was latino, and as a result, the surname "Garcia" alone took up nearly five pages of the yearbook. And you thought "Smith" was common...
Seeing double, quadruple and beyond
Having said all this, it would be odd of me not to mention the curious case of Lucho Herrera (full name: Luis Alberto Herrera Herrera). In his case, he had the same last name twice because his parents were actually first cousins. Not just first cousins, but something that in Spanish is called "primos hermanos". No term in English exists for this, so let me explain. A man and a woman get married. That man has a brother, and that woman has a sister. That brother and sister get married as well. This is slightly unusual, but not terribly so. But now picture each of these married couples has kids. Those kids are not just cousins, but actually "primos hermanos" which translates to "brother-cousins". It was this relationship to each other that Herrera's parents had. They were beyond first cousins (Update: reader Jonathan informs me that this is called "double first cousin" in English). Two such cousins marrying is not a common occurrence in Colombia (now or then) which perhaps explains why Herrera didn't willingly address the issue with the press. So why do I bring this up? Because it means that Herrera's endless string of last names repeats ad infinitum. Since I don't know his other last names, I'll simply make some up to illustrate how his name is structured as a result of this:
Luis Alberto Herrera Herrera Rodriguez Rodriguez Samper Samper
Garcia Garcia Diaz Diaz
So on and so forth.
First names (given names)
Another issue with the length of rider's names is that of given names. Sergio will usually go by "Sergio" alone, with "Luis" being used only from time to time. But in many cases, given names in Spanish speaking countries are compound names. That is, they are not meant to work individually. Women's names that begin with "Maria", such as Maria Paola, Maria Margarita and the like, are usually structured this way. Many male given names function in the same way. They appear to be two separate names that could be used individually, but are actually always meant to be used as one (which led to my mother's rage upon us moving to the United States, when she found out that Americans often have middle names they never use).
Improve your speed and power output
So what can you do with all this information? Well, if you feel that having a longer name will help your climbing abilities, if only through the power of placebo, go ahead and change your name. It's not just those of us who were born in Spanish speaking countries who have lots of last names. All of you do as well, you just need to take them down from the shelf, dust them off, and use them in your racing license. Once you do, just watch your power numbers and results improve.
A new episode of my brother's podcast is up, go listen to it.